For the human resource management process to be effective, businesses need to make consistent choices HR management model best suited to the specifics of your business. In this article we will introduce to you 10 human resource management models that help the company's development strategy become the most comprehensive!
What is the human resources management model?
Human resource management model is a term to refer to all activities that businesses or organizations perform to manage human resources. This model includes many steps such as: Attracting, using, developing, evaluating and retaining a high-quality workforce for the business. Using the model helps businesses own a full team in terms of quantity and quality that improves day by day.
The role of the human resource management model for today's businesses
Human resource management is a term used to describe the formal systems established to manage people within an organization. Essentially, the purpose of this is to maximize organizational productivity by optimizing employee efficiency.
The HR management model is closely related to the business model of the enterprise. If you have a good human resources management model, you can:
- Attract and train high quality personnel for businesses
- Develop - maintain a sufficient number of personnel to ensure production and business activities according to plan. Retain talented people, especially suitable personnel
- Maximize resource efficiency: Harness all employee skills and qualities, using the right people for the right job
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Top 10 most effective human resource management models today
Depending on the field of operation and business characteristics of the company, choosing the appropriate model will be influenced by many different factors. To help businesses make decisions easily, we have listed each model with detailed characteristics as follows:
Human resource management model according to Maslow's needs theory
Maslow's theory of needs is a highly applicable theory, used in many fields such as: Human resource management, Marketing campaigns, customer research,... To have HR management model To be effective, businesses need to identify the needs and desires of employees. Analysis of Maslow's hierarchy of needs shows that the pyramid consists of 5 floors formed into pyramid levels.
- Floor 1 - Physiological needs: This is the most basic group of needs, expressing the desire for adequate food, entertainment, rest, etc.
- Level 2 – Safety needs: When basic needs are met, people want to live in a safe living environment, ensuring the safety of their families and properties. At the same time, they want to have a stable job.
- Floor 3 – Social needs: They want to integrate and interact with other communities in society. They want to receive trust from those around them, from family, friends to society.
- Level 4 – The need to be respected: Once they have satisfied their desire to associate with many different people in society, they want to receive love and respect from those around them.
- Level 5 – Need for self-expression: This is the highest level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, meaning that when people fully meet the elements of the 4 levels below, they will begin to have a desire to express themselves, be recognized and appreciated by everyone. highly value one's own abilities. They are constantly creative to assert themselves.
Through the 5 levels of needs of Maslow's theory, it can be seen that if a business wants its staff to work hard and be constantly creative, it needs to meet basic needs such as: Food, rest, food, and entertainment. Attractive salary and basic benefits. Then businesses need to create opportunities for employees to develop their own abilities and strengths.
Human resource management model according to Douglas Mcgregor's XY theory
These are two opposing human resource theories based on the nature and way of managing people. However, businesses need to flexibly choose and combine the above two theories to have the most effective management model.
According to Theory X: It focuses on analyzing human nature and desires, it shows that humans have negative natures.
- Doesn't like to work
- Must be controlled and closely monitored to be able to work well
- They always think about themselves first, most do not have great ambitions, do not think about the common interests of the business
According to hypothesis At the same time, there are appropriate penalties for employees who do not work well and have poor working behavior.
However, according to what Theory X is about HR management model It can be seen that it is extreme and incomplete. Not all workers have such negative thoughts and actions. That's why Theory Y was born and leads to the following contents:
- Human nature likes to work
- They have a sense of self-regulation, learning and training when assigned clear tasks
- They have a sense of responsibility towards their work
- They have the ability to continuously innovate and love to take on jobs that require creativity
With the contents of Theory Y proposed, businesses need to do the following to promote creativity and awaken the internal resources of employees:
- Always believe in the obligations of each member of the organization
- Reasonable decentralization, clear assignment of tasks so that employees can be proactive in their work and self-manage their own work
- Create activities to increase engagement among employees.
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The GROW model effectively trains employees
The Grow model is a model used by many companies with the goal of training employees. Grow is the abbreviation of 4 words corresponding to 4 steps
Meaning of 4 words
- Goal – Objective
- Reality – Actual situation
- Options (or Obstacles) – Options (or obstacles).
- Will(or Way Forward) – Ready (or Way Forward).
4 steps of the Grow model
- Step 1: Research people and develop goals
- Step 2: Assess the actual situation at the company, business, and organization
- Step 3: Offer solutions and choose the solutions that are suitable for your business.
- Step 4: Prepare yourself mentally to enter the training phase.
Schuler's 5Ps model
The 5Ps model is HR management model is evaluated relatively comprehensively in terms of both structure and components. This is the model developed by Schuler, it is divided into 5 elements:
- Philosophy: Philosophy of human resource management
- Policies: Human resource management policy
- Programs: Administration programs
- Practices: Set activities and practices
- Process: Human resource management process
According to Schuler, for a successful human resource management strategy, businesses need to determine the needs and strategies of the business. Then, balance the needs of the business with human resource management programs, policies and processes. Next, businesses need to create programs that encourage employees to identify their roles.
The 5Ps model has great significance in highlighting the connection between business strategies and operations, it shows the close relationship between business philosophy, policies, programs and practices. of the enterprise with the entire human resource management process.
Harvard human resource management model
According to the above model, employees will be mainly affected by three main factors: Working regime, human resource flow and salary and bonus level. This is a human resources management model that focuses on relationships between people with the following factors: Communication, exchange, and motivation for employees to see their important role, thereby contributing their best. for work. People in this model will include employees, managers and those involved in the process of implementing, deploying and evaluating human resource policies.
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William Ouchi's Japanese-style human resource management model (Z theory)
Human resource management model William Ouchi's Japanese style (Z Theory) will divide human resources into levels to easily see the needs and characteristics of each level for effective human resource management.
- Superior (Top level): This is the level that needs to grasp the situation of the levels below, ensuring to receive feedback from subordinates in a timely manner. From there, come up with timely treatment plans.
- Grassroots level managers: People at this level need to be provided with enough authority to handle issues at the grassroots level. In addition, grassroots managers need to have management capacity and agility to receive employees' wishes and encourage employees to demonstrate their abilities.
- Middle level manager: These are the people who need to unify the views and opinions of the grassroots level, combine them with their own opinions and send them to the superiors. This group needs to put employee interests first, ensuring the best benefits, helping employees always work comfortably and devote themselves to the business.
Product management model
This model is often preferred for manufacturing enterprises. This model is specifically as follows: Each product group will be in charge of many employees responsible for each specialized function. In particular, one person in charge plays the role of overall management. If a business has many products and services, there will be an additional higher level of management to manage all products.
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Management model by geography and region
For businesses with many branches in many different regions, this is effective human resource management model. This model helps manage employees effectively, receive employee feedback, and meet the needs of employees in each region in an effective and timely manner. Specifically, small branches will report all activities to the headquarters.
Matrix management model
The matrix management model is a comprehensive management model that combines both vertical and horizontal dimensions. Specifically, each employee will work in a different department and team in each project, and undertake separate functions. When the old project ends and there are new projects, that employee can assume functions in another position. From there, it helps employees develop comprehensive capabilities and skills.
Functional management model
Most small and medium enterprises are applying a functional management model. This means that personnel will be divided into departments. Each department is independent and undertakes separate functions.
- Perform professional work
- Divide the work into smaller pieces according to the position held
- Build a management team that is consistent with the business's strategy.
With 10 HR management model mentioned above, we have clearly stated the corresponding characteristics and appropriate business models. Good human resource management will help improve the quality of human resources and the company's performance.